Officially: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Capital: Addis Ababa
Area: Total: 1,104,300km2
Water (%) 0.7
Population: 105 million (2017)
Official languages: Amharic, Afar, Amharic, Gurage, Harari, Oromo, Tigrinya, Sidamo, Somali...
Religion: Christianity (62.8%)
Traditional faiths (2.6%)
Political regime: Federal Democratic Republic
President : Sahle-Work Zewde
Prime Minister: Abiy Ahmed Ali
Ethnic groups: Oromo, Amhara, Somali, Tigray, Omotic, etc.
It is believed people have lived in Ethiopia for thousands of years, The first well known kingdom in Ethiopia rose in the first century AD. By 100AD the Axum kingdom in Ethiopia traded with Rome, Arabia and India. The kingdom became Christina in the 4th century AD.
In 642 the Muslims conquered the whole coast of North Africa converting it to Islam. Ethiopia however, remained Christian but it was cut off from Europe by the Muslims.
In the middle Ages Ethiopia flourished and the famous church of St George was built around 1200. On the 16th century the country declined in power and importance but survived. At that time the Portuguese reached Ethiopia by sea.
In the late 19th century the Europeans divided Africa between them. However, when the Italians tried to invade Ethiopia in 1896, they were defeated by the locals at the battle of Adwa.
In 1935 the Italians tried invading once again and eventually overran Ethiopia. In 1941 the British liberated the country and emperor Haile Selassies restored his throne.
6 years later Communists seized power in Ethiopia and the emperor was deposed and murdered. The communist leader Mengistu introduced a tyrannical regime.
In 1991 the communist regime was overthrown and in 1993 Eritrea became independent. A new constitution was introduced in 1994 and elections were held in 1995.
During the early 21st century the economy of Ethiopia began to grow rapidly. Even though it still remains a poor country, there is reason to remain optimistic about its future.
A major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. Its topography ranges from deserts along its eastern border, the Choke and Mandebo mountains ranges in its central core, and tropical forests in the southern reaches.
Ethiopia is dominated by a vast highland complex of mountains, plateaus and lakes, all divided by the Great Rift Valley that's surrounded by lowlands and steppes.
Not to be missed are the toothy-edged Simien Mountains to the northeast of Gonder, one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.
Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile.
The highest point of Ethiopia is Ras Dejen at 14,928 ft (4,550 m); the lowest point of the country is the Afar Depression at −410 ft (-125 m).
FAUNA AND FLORA
Ethiopia has a large variety of indigenous plant and animal species. In some areas, the mountains are covered with shrubs such as pyracantha, jasmine, poinsettia, and a varied assortment of evergreens. Caraway, carcade, coriander, incense, myrrh, and red pepper are common. The lakes in the Great Rift Valley region abound with numerous species of birds, and wild animals are found in every region. Among the latter are the lion, elephant, bush pig, gazelle, antelope, ibex, kudu, dik-dik, oribi, reed buck, wild ass, zebra, hyena, baboon, and numerous species of monkey.
There are almost 20 national parks found in Ethiopia in 4 directions of the country with different geographical backgrounds and climates, Ethiopia is one of the top world country who have many National parks. Also Ethiopia recorded 6 wild life sanctuaries:- Didessa Wildlife sanctuary, Babile Wildlife sanctuary, Kuni-Muktar Wildlife sanctuary, Senkelle Wildlife sanctuary, Stephanie Wildlife sanctuary and Yabello Wildlife sanctuary. These national parks and wildlife sanctuaries are the home of 279 mammal species among those 31 are endemic to Ethiopia.